Transaction validators validate transactions.
Transaction families consist of "a group of operations or transaction types" (Dan Middleton) that are allowed on the shared ledger. Transaction families consist of both transaction processors (the server-side logic) and clients (for use from Web or mobile applications).
The transaction processor provides the server-side business logic that operates on assets within a network.
Transaction batches are clusters of transactions that are either all committed to state, or are all not committed to state.
The network layer is responsible for communicating between validators in a Hyperledger Sawtooth network, including performing initial connectivity, peer discovery, and message handling.
The global state contains the current state of the ledger and a chain of transaction invocations. The state for all transaction families is represented on each validator. The state is split into namespaces, which allow flexibility for transaction family authors to define, share, and reuse global state data between transaction processors.